Photo of new Smashing Book 6 titled "Frontiers in Web Design"

Accessibility Tips in Single-Page Applications

I recently authored a chapter on Accessibility in Single-Page Applications in the new Smashing Book 6, New Frontiers in Web Design. In the chapter, I wrote about the unique characteristics of accessibility in web applications rendered with client-side JavaScript frameworks and libraries, such as React, Vue, Angular, Ember, and so-on. I covered focus management, properly disabling backgrounds, and handling asynchronous form updates in a screen-reader accessible way. I also included a bulleted list at the end with relevant and easy-to-digest accessibility tips.

Of course, now that my chapter has been printed into a gorgeous hard-cover book with embossed gold metallic flourishes, I have a few things I wish I could add; particularly to the short list of tips.

To capture a more complete picture of accessibility in single-page apps still in a concise format, I’ll start with the “accessibility rules” listed in the book chapter and add a few extras that are still on my mind now that it’s been published. Each one of these could probably consist of its own blog post, but the intent of this one is to highlight tips and techniques that could help in your next JavaScript-focused project.

  1. It’s easier and less costly to incorporate accessibility the earlier you tackle it, starting with UX and Design.
  2. Prototype complex or custom interactions early, and include accessibility.
  3. Check out the ARIA Authoring Practices for known interaction patterns.
  4. Be generous with color contrast; it not only both helps people with low vision and color deficiency, but also low-contrast projectors and outdoor displays.
  5. Screen readers have ways of navigating other than using the TAB key, so you don’t need to make everything focusable.
  6. Interactive widgets (i.e. “controls”) should be designed to work with the keyboard, not just on hover or swipe.
  7. Get comfortable with focus management in JavaScript, and write it into your automated tests.
  8. Test with accessibility browser extensions and automated testing tools for extra muscle. (Deque’s axe and WorldSpace Attest tools fall into this category)
  9. Test your app with real users, including users with disabilities. Organizations like Knowbility’s Access Works can help.

And now for the additional stuff:

  1. Accessibility is about more than developing for users with blindness or low-vision. Familiarize yourself with the needs of people with disabilities with help from the W3C.
  2. Consider whether a single-page app is really necessary, and if you even need to use a JavaScript framework at all.
  3. If you do go the single-page app route, ensure your core user paths actually work without JavaScript turned on, using server-side pre-rendering. This also helps with SEO!
  4. Make sure that client-side view changes are known to screen reader users by announcing the change in page title, using ARIA live regions and/or focus management.
  5. Semantic structure is more important than developer ergonomics. Craft the most semantic HTML pages you can, regardless of your CSS or JavaScript development tools.

Without these accessibility rules applied, JavaScript-heavy web applications can leave users with disabilities behind. It’s unfortunate how few good examples there are of client-rendered applications like these, but with the right knowledge and best practices we can put much better accessibility examples out into the world.

For more information on developing accessible web applications with JavaScript, check out our training materials on or a number of talks and articles from me (Marcy Sutton). If you have any questions about how to apply these principles or would like to schedule a pairing session, don’t hesitate to reach out to us on Twitter or email.

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